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::Laatste trainingsberichten
Eddy van Oort op 3/24/2009 @ 10:51 am

korte krachttraining
bench: 10x4 6x50 3x6x60 2x70
squatmachine: 10x80 2x10x100 (explosief uit, 3 sec terug)

Eddy van Oort op 3/18/2009 @ 10:44 am

90-80-70 versnelling rustig
60-50-40 versnelling 90% + coast
6 x 30m startspelletje
300-200-150-200-300 200m wndrust (~= 3′)
(46.9 28.6 20.9 28.1 45.2)

150m te rustig aan gelopen als ik ‘t terugzie, had een 19-er moeten zijn.

Eddy van Oort op @ 10:41 am

bank 10x40 8x50 3x6x60 1x70 0x75
squatmachine 10x70 2x8x100 6x120 , “diep”.

Eddy van Oort op 3/11/2009 @ 9:05 am

2 x 6 x 200m in estafette vorm, on flats
(30.6 30.0 30.5 30.3 32.2 31.3) (rust: 1:16 1:20 1:20 1:21 1:17)
23′ rust/medizin bal oefeningen
(33.3 32.3 32.1 31.9 31.9 31.0) (rust: 1:19 1:20 1:18 1:21 1:16)

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::Snelkracht artikelen

misc.fitness.weights FAQ

misc.fitness.weights -- 2004.04.13

(last update 2001.04.20)

This is the misc.fitness.weights FAQ. If at any point you do not understand the terms used in this FAQ, they can be looked up in the bodybuilding and weightlifting dictionary

This article is provided as is without any express or implied warranties. While every effort has been taken to ensure the accuracy of the information contained in this article, the author/maintainer/contributors assume(s) no responsibility for errors or omissions, or for damages resulting from the use of the information contained herein.
Comments about the content of this FAQ should be directed to the newsgroup misc.fitness.weights.

Many thanks to Deja News for their search engine and database.

This FAQ is available at http://www.trygve.com/mfw_faq.html
  1. Can I advertise in misc.fitness.weights?
  2. I just began working out and I wanna get big. How should I start?
    1. Should I work the entire body at every workout?
    2. How many exercises should I do per muscle group?
    3. How many sets should I do per exercise?
    4. How many repetitions should I perform?
    5. How many times per week should I lift?
    6. Should I be concerned about the amount of weight I lift?
    7. What are the best exercises for a beginner?
    8. What is HIT?
    9. What is Periodization?
    10. What is a hardgainer?
    11. Where can I read more about lifting routines on the net?
    12. Which of the muscle/exercise/health magazines should I believe?
  3. I want to tone up, but I don't want to get too big. How can I achieve this?
  4. The Exercises
    1. What is the proper way to squat?
    2. What is the proper way to deadlift?
    3. How do I work my abs?
    4. How do I get a 6-pack?
    5. What is the proper way to do shrugs?
    6. Can I change the peak of my bicep?
  5. Weightlifting and health?
    1. Is weightlifting beneficial for my health?
    2. My liver enzymes are elevated, but I don't take steroids or drink alcohol. What's the problem?
  6. Weightlifting and cardiovascular conditioning
    1. How important is cardiovascular conditioning to Bodybuilders?
    2. How important is cardiovascular conditioning to Powerlifters?
    3. Should I do cardiovascular work before or after the weights?
  7. Muscle strength versus size
    1. Can I gain muscle and lose fat at the same time?
    2. Can I lose fat without losing muscle?
    3. Can I get stronger without gaining more muscle mass?
    4. Can I gain muscle mass without getting stronger?
  8. What should I eat?
    1. to gain weight?
      1. How many Calories?
      2. How much protein?
      3. How much carbohydrate?
      4. How much fat?
    2. to lose weight?
      1. How many Calories?
      2. How much protein?
      3. How much carbohydrate?
        1. What is Glycemic Index?
      4. How much fat?
    3. Is weightlifting important to fat loss?
    4. What about those weight loss centers?
    5. What is the Isometric diet?
    6. What is the Anabolic diet?
    7. What is Bodyopus?
    8. What is the Zone diet?
    9. Dietary Protein Requirements of the Athlete
    10. Is increased protein intake harmful?
    11. Carbohydrate loading
  9. Supplements
    1. Protein powders
    2. Meal Replacement Powders
    3. Weight gainers / "mega-mass 9 billion"
    4. Proteabolic
    5. Amino acids
      1. supplemental branched chain amino acids
      2. l-carnitine
      3. GABA
      4. Glutamine
      5. HMB
      6. KIC
      7. phosphatidyl serine
      8. tryptophan
      9. tyrosine
      10. Can amino acids cause an increase in GH secretion (ROK)
    6. Colostrum
    7. Sports bars
    8. CLA
    9. DMSO
    10. Flax seed oil
    11. Lecithin
    12. Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCT oil)
    13. Omega-3 fatty acids
    14. vitamin and mineral supplementation
      1. B vitamins
      2. Boron
      3. Chromium
      4. CoQ10
      5. Dibencozide
      6. vanadium
    15. Creatine
    16. Hydroxy-citric acid (HCA)
    17. Glucosamine Sulphate
    18. Inosine
    19. Prohormones
      1. pregnenolone
      2. DHEA
      3. androstenedione
      4. androdiol
      5. 5-androstenediol
      6. norandrostenedione, norandrodiol
      7. cyclodiol
    20. Melatonin
    21. Tribulus Terrestris ( Endo-Pro, Tribestrone )
    22. "Super Blue-Green Algae"
    23. Shark cartilage/bovine cartilage
    24. Random vaguely Russian-sounding "supplements" from Atletika
    25. Herbs
      1. Avena Sativa
      2. Borage
      3. Capsicum
      4. Ephedrine, ECA stack
      5. Evening Primrose
      6. Gamma Oryzanol
      7. Ginseng
      8. Cordyceps (Dong Chong)
      9. Milk Thistle
      10. Saw Palmetto
      11. Smilax
      12. Yohimbe
  10. Are there any natural ways of increasing testosterone levels?
    1. Homeopathic testosterone and other homeopathic preparations
    2. Do squats and deadlifts increase testosterone production?
    3. What about sex and/or masturbation?
  11. What are anabolic steroids?
    1. What Side effects are commonly seen with steroid use?
      1. Is Lyle Alzado a good example of how steroids are harmful?
    2. Should I start my first cycle?
    3. I'm going to start my first cycle. What are the safest steroids?
    4. Where can I get steroids?
    5. Are my steroids real?
    6. What is the proper way to taper off cycle?
    7. Is bridging between cycles beneficial?
    8. Are steroids morally wrong?
  12. What about other drugs?
    1. Clenbuterol
    2. Clomid / Cyclofenil
    3. Cytomel
    4. Cytadren
    5. DNP
    6. Diuretics
    7. Growth Hormone
    8. HCG
    9. Insulin
    10. Insulin-like Growth Factor 1
    11. Nolvadex
    12. Viagra
  13. What is the best way to remove body hair?
  14. Miscellany
    1. How can I get BRAWN or Hardgainer?
    2. How can I subscribe to Peak training journal?
    3. Why do so many people in m.f.w hate MM2K and Phillips?
    4. Why is everyone so hung up on scientific evidence and research studies?
  15. Document History
  16. Works In Progress -- topics requested but not yet completed
  17. Authors and credits

This FAQ was originally compiled and edited by Rifle River
Subsequent updates and maintenance by Trygve Lode (trygve@trygve.com).

MFW-FAQ Section 0
Can I advertise in Misc.fitness.weights?

No. Go away.

Seriously, commercial ads are strongly discouraged on misc.fitness.weights; ads for weights-related items may be placed freely on alt.fitness.marketplace, however. Generally, the contents of a .signature appended to your articles on the group may contain whatever you wish to put there and that may include pointers to a commercial website or mention of your products or services--however, this exception is only applicable if you're actually posting an article that is otherwise appropriate for the group.

Noncommercial ads for personal items appropriate to the group, such as one for your old MogoFlex Ergobench 2000 are grudgingly permitted, however, note that newsgroups such as misc.fitness.weights are propagated worldwide, so consider limiting the distribution of any ads of this type to just your local area and absolutely be certain that you mention your approximate location. It does no good to list your pre-owned 600-pound aerobic kickboxing simulator if a potentially interested reader has no way of knowing whether you are in the South Bronx or South Africa.

MFW-FAQ Section I
I just began lifting and I wanna get big. How should I start?

Lift big weights (with proper form). Eat big. Avoid overtraining. Short, but intense workouts are probably the best type of workout to stimulate muscle growth while avoiding overtraining. Some people prefer low-volume High Intensity Training (HIT). Some follow a more moderate volume approach. Others prefer high volume lifting (many exercises, many sets etc.). Still another commonly followed method of training is Periodization. Advanced lifters often follow programs that are not suitable for beginners. Don't follow someone else's lifting schedule, design your own.

  1. Should I work the entire body at every workout?

    Certainly. Entire body workouts usually make the most efficient use of time. Of course, there is no reason you can't work different muscle groups on different days. However, a beginner is less likely to overtrain any individual body part if they're working the entire body in one workout.

  2. How many exercises should I do per muscle group?

    Some suggest only one exercise per muscle group. Others prefer to do 4 or 5 different exercises for a single muscle group. Keep in mind that too much enthusiasm for the weights will often lead to overtraining, so moderation is key until you discover what works best for your body.

  3. How many sets should I do per exercise?

    Some suggest that once the muscles are thoroughly warm (after performing a couple of light-weight warmup sets) you should do one all out set to failure. Others suggest that you should perform 2 to 4 working sets to failure for each exercise.

    Almost everyone can agree that if you end up doing 30 sets for any individual body part, you are definitely overtraining (assuming that you take these sets to failure) or just wasting your time (assuming you don't take these sets to failure).

  4. How many repetitions should I perform?

    When warming up you should be able to complete more than 12 repetitions with ease. On sets that are taken to failure you should fail at some number less than 12 receptions and greater than 5 repetitions. If you can do more than 12 repetitions on your working set, then the weight should be increased. Remember, there are two components to building mass - the load placed on the muscle and the time under tension.

    On the other hand, as Andy Austin used to say, "lots of muscle has been built with singles all the way to 100 rep schemes."

  5. How many times per week should I lift?

    Some beginners make fine progress training the entire body three times a week, a Mon, Wed and Fri routine, for example. Other beginners require more recuperation time and make gains training the entire body only once per week. People differ and so do individual muscle groups. Some muscles can be trained more frequently than others. Find a routine that is comfortable for you and allows you to make progress. If you aren't making any progress consider the possibility that you are overtraining (quite common) or even undertraining (less common).

  6. Should I be concerned about the amount of weight I lift?

    Initially, no. The most important thing for a beginner is to learn proper lifting technique. However, the basic principle of getting larger through weightlifting is progressive overload. You must increase the weight (load) so that the muscle will be forced to adapt to the increase in stress.
    Bouncing and moving the weight too quickly will not stress your muscles into growing and it will likely stress your joints unnecessarily. Remember, that for bodybuilders, the goal is not to lift the weight. Weightlifting, for bodybuilders, is merely a method to stress the muscles. A bodybuilder should work the muscle, or muscle group that the exercise focuses on, not try to heave the weight up by any means possible. There is a difference between lifting a weight and working a muscle, although it basically comes down to using proper form and technique. For example, if your lower back becomes stressed from doing biceps curls, you should consider paying more attention to working the biceps, not trying to get too much weight up by throwing out your back.

    Comparing yourself to other lifters is also unnecessary. Everyone starts at a different level.

  7. What are the best exercises for a beginner?

    Squat, Barbell Bench Press, Pull Up, Seated Military Press Dead Lift, Incline Dumbbell Press, Bent Over Barbell Row

    These exercises are considered the best because they are compound movements that involve moving a lot of weight while recruiting many different muscle groups. These are the types of exercises that will make you grow, not concentration movements.

  8. What is HIT?

    High Intensity Training. This is a training method which believes in minimizing the sets per exercise. No warm-up sets are done with the belief that the first few reps of the exercise is sufficient. Each set is done at very high intensity to complete failure.

    In a typical HIT workout, 15-20 different single set exercises may be done in the space of 1 hour hitting the entire body with around 2 mins rest between sets. A 'HIT Jedi' does not believe in split routines where different bodyparts are trained on different days (which allows more time per bodypart). Amongst other benefits, HIT training is a very time efficient way of training.

    The HIT (High Intensity Training) FAQ 3.0 is available at

  9. What is Periodization? [deja]

    Periodization is a training method where over a series of weeks the number of reps is dropped and the weights increased. The idea behind this is to shock the muscles into growth by varying the reps & weights.

    Part of the theory of periodization revolves around the idea that a person can't always train with 100% intensity and that the body may actually need some periods of lighter weight, variable rep training to allow for recuperation. In addition, periodization is based on the idea that not all muscle fiber types can be trained with the same rep schemes. Many powerlifters follow some form of periodization to peak for a competition.

  10. What is a 'Hardgainer'? / What is a Hardgainer routine'?

    A hardgainer (HG) is someone who has a genetic make-up which does not allow him/her to pack on muscle quickly. These type of people typically do not respond large volumes and frequency of training. It has been estimated that 60%-95% of the population are hardgainers.

    HG routines use low volumes and frequencies of training. A HG routine will usually train each bodypart no more than once per week. Compound movements (like squats and deadlifts) are favoured over isolation movements (like leg extensions or hamstring curls). Hardgainers are prone to overtraining when using high volume/frequency workouts, hence the general rule of thumb is 'less is more'.

    Frank J. Kelly and Craig Sadler's Hardgainer bodybuilding / weightlifting FAQ (11/29/1999) is available at

  11. Where can I read more about lifting routines on the net?

    There are numerous places where you can read more about lifting routines,
    like HIT and Periodization. Check out these sites:

    (the following links have not yet be checked or updated)

    "Zen and the Art of Weightlifting" It's at

    The misc.fitness FAQ can be found at

    MM2K bench press routine at

    Psycho Trainer's Guide to lifting.

    To subscribe to the Weights mailing list

    The Canadian Powerlifting Union page:
    has good discussions of squat/deadlift/bench form.

  12. Which of the muscle/exercise/health magazines should I believe?

    There's a profusion of muscle/exercise/health magazines out there and they often seem to contradict each other or even themselves from issue to issue. The one thing they do have in common, however, is that they put well-built guys with defined abs on their covers, usually with scantily-clad (though, in most cases, not visibly muscular) women hanging off of them.

    ...which should be your first clue that magazines are, first and foremost, in the business of making money, and that means selling issues and supporting their advertisers and owners.

    Just in case you didn't already know this, many, if not most, muscle/exercise/health magazines are owned by companies that make supplements and often gym apparel and home exercise equipment as well. Even apart from who owns them, the fact is that advertising sales to supplement companies are where most of their revenues come from; the price on the cover that you pay is just an added bonus. That doesn't mean that what they print is wrong, but it does tell you on what side their bread is buttered. For example:

    Experimental and Applied
    Sciences (EAS) owns:
    • Muscle Media
    (Robert Kennedy) owns:
    • Musclemag International
    • Oxygen
    Twin Laboratories
    (TwinLab) owns:
    • Muscular Development
    Weider owns:
    • Fit Pregnancy
    • Flex
    • Muscle and Fitness
    • Muscle and Fitness Hers
    • Natural Health
    • Shape

    You can expect to find taking (or at least purchasing) supplements given emphasis above and beyond their importance in training, and the coverage in the articles and news briefs is likely to be slanted towards whatever products are in the parent company's lineup.

    The other notable caveat about training articles is that many of the routines given would push you well beyond overtraining if you followed them. With an article on training your upper body, legs, or a full-body training regimen, that won't always be the case, but every magazine has to run at least one article every six months on Blasting Your Biceps Beyond Belief and, sad to say, the biceps just aren't that big, and they get worked in a lot of other exercises already (pulldowns, chinups, rows, as examples).

    But if you're going to write an article on battering your biceps until they're begging for mercy, you have to come up with more than a few simple exercises to write about, especially if you want to work in a bunch of cool-looking pics of biceps exercises and poses.

    Think of "muscle magazines" as decent sources of pictures and inspiration, but keep their editorial biases in mind when you read them.

MFW-FAQ Section II
I want to tone up, but I don't want to get too big. How can I achieve this?

You should work out exactly as described above with one exception: once your muscles are as toned as you want them, stop increasing the amount of weight. Performing sets of endless repetitions with extremely light weight is a waste of time. It will not make you more toned. There are only two reasons to perform more than 12 repetitions in a set: 1) you really like to warm up thoroughly or 2) you really like the feel of the pump after a high-rep set. High repetitions will not lead to toning, or hypertrophy for that matter.

Getting big is extremely difficult, especially for women. Most men and 99.9% of all women do not have the capacity to get large. If, after two years of lifting weights intensely, you become too large, you are either a genetic freak or on drugs. So many lifters want to be big and so few ever achieve it because it is so difficult. Do not worry about getting too large. Lift weights to strengthen your muscles, this will improve their tone. High repetitions will only increase the amount of time, possibly indefinitely, required to achieve your goal of being toned. Lift hard, and once you are toned, then stop increasing the weights. In addition, fat hides muscle tone. Many people can look toned just by dropping some body fat (see Is weightlifting important to fat loss?). RR

The exercises

  1. What is the proper way to squat?

    Squatting is one of the most productive if not the best exercises out there (it's called the King of Exercises by many). It is one of the most difficult to learn as well. If you are new to this exercise, please take several training sessions practicing with an empty bar or broomstick (you can do some additional work on the leg press if needed). It's very important to get your technique down cold while the weights are still light. Your small errors with small weights will turn into BIG errors with big weights. Much of the bad press the squat has received in the media is a result of improper technique and not the exercise itself. Red flags you may encounter will be pointed out and hopefully how to avoid them.

    The first thing to discuss is not foot position or width of stance, but proper trunk position. Pretend you are a soldier and the meanest, ugliest sergeant ever just told you "TEN-HUT!" You would automatically straighten up and pull your head and shoulders back. This is the proper position of the spine for the squat. IOW, your head is pulled back; your chest is raised; and you have a slight arch in your lower back. At no time during the squat should you bend over at the low back or look down. Of course you have to bend over at the hip (more on that later). You should not look up either. OK, so you got that down?

    Now, the best way to do squats is in a power rack or cage (a large rectangular rack with cross-drilled holes) so you can adjust the pins where if you have to bale, you can set the bar down without any harm. Set the pins to just below the depth you are going. They also serve as a visual cue for depth and if you go down/up crooked. Place the J hooks or posts that hold the bar for you to get under at the level of your nipple or so. Try to unrack it once to see if it's at the right height The bar should have a knurled area in the middle (if it doesn't, find another bar or another gym) so it will not slide down your back. Many people use towels or padding under the bar. Others (including me) feel this leads to some instability because the weight is "teeter tottering" on a small area on your back. If the bar is hurting you either need to add some trapezius mass, place the bar a little further down your back (it should be just above or below the sharp ridge on your scapula (shoulder blade), buy a Manta Ray, or tolerate it because it's part of the game. The Ray helps to spread the load across the shoulder, but it doesn't fit everyone well.

    Now step up to the bar. Place your hands about the same width as a bench press (unless you are doing the shoulder breaker wide-grip variety) and make sure you are even on the bar before unracking. Take a deep breath, step under the bar and unrack it Most squat injuries (according to Fred Hatfield) occur during the back up. Only take enough steps that you can clear the j-hooks or posts on the descent. Place your feet shoulder width or slightly farther apart. Think if you suspended a line from the ceiling it would brush against your medial delt and hit you in the ankle. Use the "practice" sessions to get a width that fits you. You might say many powerlifters squat with a wide-stance and they are pretty strong as a group. I'll agree wholeheartedly, but I'll also point out that the conventional squat is prob'ly more productive because you are working through a larger Range Of Motion. Learn this way and then learn the variations if you like. After you have the width right, turn your feet out at roughly a 45 degree angle. Adjust the width if need be. Now you are ready to squat.

    Take a deep breath, contract your abs and descend. It should feel like you are sitting back on a chair behind you; not going straight down. Keep your knees in line with your feet. DO NOT LET YOUR KNEES BOW IN anytime during the lift! (I have a Grade 1 knee sprain (MCL) from doing just this.) Keep the load light enough so you won't do this and gradually build up. Many people say to try to keep your shin at a 90 degree angle to the ground. This is impossible with the regular stance squat and is only possible by a few using the wide-stance variety. Try to keep your knees from going out past your toes. Alter the width if need be. Most people can and should descend till their thighs are parallel to the ground. This is actually pretty low. A very small majority of people can't and may be better stopping just above parallel. Don't give up on reaching parallel too quick. Also, to go even close to parallel, you have to bend over at the hip (not the spine, of course). However, you should always be more upright than bent over. Two methods of determining your shin/back position and depth is to either have an attentive and adept person monitor you from the side and/or use a video camera placed to the side and close enough to determine all angles. After you have descended to the bottom position, reverse your direction immediately (don't bounce at the bottom) and drive upwards. Try and pull your back up (hip extension) as hard as possible during the ascent. Brooks Kubik describes this "as if a giant gorilla had a hold of your ass and your shoulder and was trying to straighten you out." Come back to a standing position, take a breath or two (or many 8^) and descend again. Make each rep it's own little lift. IOW, make each one count even on your warm-ups. If you maintain good form in your warm-ups, you'll likely retain it for the work sets.

    Should you wear a belt or knee wraps? The former helps to stabilize the spine by increasing intra-abdominal pressure and the latter is just a way of elevating more weight. Especially if you are getting started with the squat, go without either. Use your abdomen as the brace instead of outside help. The knee wraps serve no use except to the powerlifter who wants a bigger max. They may impede the growth of structures around the knee or even cause some harm if used chronically.

    The main reason the power rack gathers dust while there is a line for the angled leg press is because squats HURT! It doesn't matter whether it's the skinny beginner using the "big wheels" on each side for the first time or the bonafide 600+ squatter stepping under an already bending bar. They both feel some pain when doing this exercise. Learn to live with it! The most productive exercises are the most painful. It's a fact of life. If you squat with proper technique and heavy (for you) poundage, you might grunt, scream, cry, hurl and/or pass out, but you prob'ly won't be injured and you'll make terrific headway towards your goals. Learn to be aggressive and focus your complete attention on the task at hand. Good luck and happy training!

    Chuck Clark SPT
    University of Louisville, KY.

  2. What is the proper way to deadlift?

    One of the most productive, but least seen exercises in the gym is the deadlift. From a technique point of view, it's a relatively simple one compared to the squat. You just stand up holding a barbell in front of you without humping your back. That's a brief, but concise explanation. However, most people are scared of the deadlift because they think it will pull, strain, or break their back. When performed in good form, however, the deadlift is one of the best erector (the muscles of the spine) and total body exercises around.

    First, learn to set up your spine and shoulder girdle as described in the "How to Squat" section. Suffice to say, you should pull your shoulders back and keep them there. Additionally, you should NEVER let your back hump over at any time during the lift. Load a barbell on the floor to the desired poundage. Make sure the area around you is free of potential troubles and the floor is not slippery. If you don't have the required strength to use 45 lb. plates on each side of the barbell, elevate the bar to mimic the height as if you were using the 45s.

    Walk up and place your feet slightly narrower than shoulder width apart with your shin almost brushing the bar. Point your toes out at an angle slightly. Reach down and grasp the bar with an overhand grip just outside your legs. Contract your abs hard, make sure your back is flat (actually with a natural arch), and pull the bar up. Be sure to keep the bar as close to your body as possible as you stand up.

    The angle to which your hip and knee joints go to is an individual matter. Length of bones and your flexibility will determine this. You should always attempt to remain more upright than bent over. When you pull the bar, make sure your hip joint straightens at the same rate as your knee. Don't straighten your knees and then try to straighten your hips. You'll hurt yourself. Also, don't lean back at the top.

    After you've stood up with the weight, take a breath, contract your abs and slowly descend in the reverse manner you came up. Do NOT bounce the barbell on the floor. After the plates touch the floor, take a breath (or many!), contract your abs and flatten your back, and pull again. Make each rep its own little lift. Practice the mvmt with light weight till you get it down before moving up in weight.

    The first muscles to usually fatigue during the lift are those associated with gripping the bar which are mostly located in the forearm. Most people will tell you to use an mixed grip (one palm forward, one palm back). This can create some torque imbalances that may give you problems later. Especially when you are starting out, keep to the pronated or hands-over grip and let your grip muscles catch up. If you must use the mixed grip, alternate which palm is forward each set or each session. The least attractive option is to use straps. Straps take the work off of the grip muscles and arguably make the deadlift less productive. Use chalk if it is feasible to help hold the bar.

    As in the squat, some people can't truly descend to the bottom position in the deadlift safely. Don't give up very quickly on making this low spot. If you can't, don't despair. Place some pins in the power rack to where when you place the barbell on them it's just above where it would be on the floor. Try out the mvmt. Elevate the pins till it feels right. If this doesn't help or having to pull the bar that's out in front of you gives your back fits, you might want to give a Gerard trap bar a try. This is a diamond shaped bar that you stand inside of and deadlift. The line of force is through you instead of out front. This makes for a more safe and therefore productive exercise than the regular version. You can have a look at the Gerard trap bar at .

    As in the squat, the deadlift is a very productive and, hence brutal exercise. Don't be scared of it, though. Tall and lanky people who usually have great trouble squatting or benching can usually move up quickly in poundages in the deadlift. This exercise is more than just a back exercise or a "thickening" exercise, it's a total body exercise. Too much in weight training is put into isolation. The big movements ARE the most productive. The deadlift works you from finger to neck to toe. Treat it with respect and it will help you realize your goals quicker than without it. Good luck and happy training!

    University of Louisville, KY.

  3. How do I work my abs?

    Use weight for resistance. 100 reps of any exercise is a waste of time. Crunches are good because they focus on the abs. I view crunches as an isolation movement. Compound movements are usually better, so I actually recommend sit ups (especially incline) with weight held on the chest. Yes, sit ups work the hip flexors and other muscles as well, but these muscles are critical to movements like the squat, deadlift and other serious compound movements. Who wants weak hip flexors anyway?

    The High-Intensity Abdominal Workout:

    For those who are obsessed with their abdominal muscles, are willing to spare no expense to develop them, and want a hard-core, high-intensity, low-repetition abdominal workout, there IS an answer.

    The primary problem with this method is the fact that the required equipment is [a] rather expensive, and [b] since the late 1980s, rather difficult to find. You will need an "inversion table" with "gravity boots." For those unfamiliar with such devices, a brief explanation is in order. "Gravity boots" are padded, metal collars which are clamped onto your ankles and which have a strong metal hook that protrudes from the front, directly over the foot. An "inversion table" is designed for use with gravity boots. It is like a vertical army cot with two bars spanning the foot end, one below the feet, and one above the feet. It is attached to a stand by a single pivot hinge on each side. After fitting the gravity boots, you step onto the inversion table with your feet on the lowest bar and the hooks of the boots locked beneath the upper bar. Then, you simply throw your weight backwards, causing the table to pivot approximately 180 degrees on its hinges, leaving you suspended by your ankles, completely upside-down. Please note that a good inversion table will pivot beyond perpendicular, breaking contact with all parts of your body other than your ankles; some of them will not reach full perpendicular, leaving you mostly inverted but still laying on the surface of the table. The latter is not well suited to this type of exercise.

    Once inverted, you can perform a normal "crunch" routine. The complete inversion of your body will provide extreme resistance which will result in the much-desired abdominal "burn" long before the number of repetitions required when doing crunches on the floor or on a slant board. However, a few suggestions on technique will be helpful:

    (1) Do NOT hold your hands behind your head; clasp them across your chest. Your neck should be held in a relaxed position, with your head back, "pulling" yourself forward with your shoulders, not your head. When you find yourself able to do more than 20 repetitions, you may clasp a weight plate to your chest to add resistance, increasing the size of the plate each time you can exceed 20 repetitions.

    (2) Although it will be slightly difficult, bending slightly at the knees will decrease stress on your back. However, even with your legs fully extended, you will find that the usual back stress experienced during traditional crunches is almost non-existent when performing "inverted" crunches.

    Aside from the increased resistance in using this abdominal workout, there are a few other advantages:

    (1) No "tailbone rash." The usual abrasion caused by constant friction on the sacral spine area during traditional crunches no longer exists. Your back does not contact any solid surface; therefore, no friction.

    (2) No "head banging." There is no solid surface to come into contact with your head, either. That is why you can easily hold your head back during this routine without worrying about striking it on the floor and without the need to support it in any way.

    Abdominal Training FAQ

  4. How do I get a 6-pack?

    Everyone has a six-pack of abs. The ability to see them is completely dependent upon body fat levels. If you want to show off a washboard stomach, then drop the body fat. Spot reduction is a myth. Hundreds of situps or crunches will not "bring out" the abs if they're covered in fat.

    If you want to increase the strength of your abdominals (and every lifter should), then perform abdominal exercises with WEIGHT. 100 reps of any exercise is a waste of time.

  5. What is the proper way to do shrugs?

    Shrugs should be performed in a straight up and down motion. Keep the head in an upright position, looking straight ahead, not at the floor, not at the ceiling.

    Rolling the shoulders does not stress the traps any better. In fact, it may be harmful. Rowing movements can effectively work the traps when the shoulders are pulled backward. However, rowing movements call for moving the weight perpendicular to the body in order to stress these muscles during this movement. During shrugs the weight is not in a position to provide resistance against a backward movement. Therefore, a shrug should be done straight up and down.

    Barbells or dumbbells can be used, although dumbbells provide for a more natural shrug.

  6. Can I change the peak of my bicep?

    In a word, NO! Everyone from Peewee Herman to Ahnuld has their own individual genetic shape. You can't change it. This extends to the shape of the muscle bellies as well. Some people have very long and flat muscle bellies and some have peaky, short muscles. Most people are somewhere in between. The biceps brachii is a two headed muscle that runs from the shoulder to across the elbow. It functions to supinate and flex the forearm. The 2 heads run parallel to each other and it's debatable whether one exercise will target one over the other when sufficient weight is used. You can't preferentially contract one area of a bicep head over the other, either. The innervation of a muscle (or muscle head in this case) is made so that if one motor unit (motor neuron and the muscle fibers it innervates) fires you'll get a very weak contraction all over the whole muscle. As more motor units are called into play the weak contractions (all over, of course) summate and you get a strong contraction.

    Also, you can't stretch one part of a muscle over any other part because you either move the muscle attachments closer together or farther apart. So, what do you do? You just merely focus on making your arms larger: increase the size of the muscles. This will give you the illusion of having peakier or longer biceps. Doing the "mass" or big movements will go longer to giving you big arms than endless sets of curls. Also, you're going to have to increase your bodyweight significantly to make any real gains in bicep mass. It's much easier to put an inch on your arms when you've put on 20 lbs of muscle.

    Chuck Clark SPT
    University of Louisville, KY.

MFW-FAQ Section IV
weightlifting and health

  1. Is weightlifting beneficial for my health?

    Yes. Muscle is what moves us and it's something we all lose as we age. The loss begins about age 25 resulting in about a 10% loss by age 50. Between the ages of 50 and 80, people lose about half their strength and about 40% of their muscle. The exact mechanism causing this change is unknown, but it is thought that it is related to altered interactions between muscle cells and motor nerves.

    Muscle loss leads to a lower metabolic rate and, thus, weight gain unless Calorie intake is reduced (which rarely happens). Age associated muscle wasting can lead to a number of problems where older people may not have the strength to lift loads, rise from a chair, or carry out the daily activities required for independent living.

    Weight lifting or resistance training can actually prevent this muscle loss. So far, strength training is the only method shown effective at slowing this loss of muscle. Aerobic exercise does not stem muscle loss. Physiologists indicate that, ideally, a person would begin weight training before age 50 (those of us at mfw would suggest by age 20). The benefits are not restricted to older members of society. Interestingly, studies have shown that 87 year old men and women experienced a 90% increase in strength over a 10 week period of resistance training. If you have high blood pressure, diabetes, heart pains or any heart or circulatory condition, it is essential to check with your physician before beginning.

    Strength training has been shown to increase bone-density in post-menopausal women, helping to prevent bone fractures. In addition, weightlifting can improve neural control of muscles which can prevent the types of accidents that often cause bone fractures in the elderly.

    In addition, weightlifting can contribute greatly to the control of body fat. Therefore, weightlifting can be very beneficial for those who have a tendency towards obesity. As more studies are done, more and more beneficial effects of weightlifting are becoming evident.

  2. My liver enzymes are elevated, but I don't take steroids or drink alcohol. What's the problem?

    While the aminotransferases are often referred to as liver enzymes, these enzymes are actually found in numerous tissues and their numbers often increase from exercise-induced trauma.

    These numbers are a good marker for people who drink alcohol constantly, or consume oral anabolic steroids. If the numbers are 100 times higher than the normal range in the aforementioned people, there's a good chance their livers are hurting.

MFW-FAQ Section V
Cardiovascular conditioning and weightlifters

  1. How important is cardiovascular conditioning to bodybuilders?

    Very important. First, cardiovascular conditioning is very important for health, but bodybuilders rely on it to help shed fat so they can show off the physiques they have built. Some argue that they burn enough calories from intense weight workouts, making cardio unnecessary. While this may be true for people with fast metabolisms, it is not true for a large percentage of the population. Recent studies have found that long duration, repetitive use of muscles (like biking, rowing, skiing or jogging for 10 minutes or longer) causes changes in gene expression that greatly increase the quantity of certain proteins within these exercised cells (mainly slow twitch fibers). These proteins not only have the potential to lead to better health, but they can greatly enhance the fat burning done by these muscle cells. To turn your body into a blast furnace, do some cardio exercise regularly. In addition, regular cardio work may also provide for better blood flow to muscle cells, which may provide for better lifting in the gym.

  2. Powerlifters?

    Powerlifters who are unconcerned with the health benefits of cardiovascular exercise may still need to do some regular cardiovascular exercise. Too much cardio work would be absolutely detrimental to their goal. However, insufficient cardio exercise may limit their potential as a powerlifter.

  3. Should I do cardiovascular work before or after the weights?

    Cardiovascular exercise before lifting weights can serve as a very good warmup. Unfortunately, this may leave you too fatigued to give intense effort to the weight workout.

    Weightlifting before cardiovascular exercise may help the body go into "fat burning" mode faster because the weightlifting depletes glycogen stores. Unfortunately, after lifting a person may be too tired to have an effective cardiovascular workout.

    The general consensus is that, for general fitness, it doesn't matter what order you do your exercise. However, strength athletes should prioritize the weightlifting first, performing the cardio later.

    Lyle McDonald and RR

MFW-FAQ Section VI
Strength and size

  1. Can I gain muscle and lose fat at the same time?

    This is very difficult. It can be done in some unique circumstances, but for the most part it isn't possible. For example, novice lifters can sometimes gain muscle and lose fat at the same time. Also, people returning from long layoffs can sometimes add muscle and lose fat at the same time. However, experienced lifters who are working out consistently can't do both at the same time. If you want to do both, you should choose one goal (either fat loss or muscle gain) and work towards that goal for a few months. After some success towards that goal, you should then change over and try to accomplish the other for a few months. Be single-minded in your focus towards that goal. When trying to lose fat, you should be unconcerned if you lose a little muscle as well. Likewise, if you're trying to add muscle, you should allow the addition of a small amount of fat.

  2. Can I lose fat without losing muscle?

    No, this can't be done. Most dieters will lose 1 pound of muscle for every 3 pounds of fat lost. Steroid-aided athletes can only take this ratio up to about 1:8. Muscle loss when dieting is inevitable. Try to minimize it, but focus on the goal of fat loss.

  3. Can I get stronger without gaining more muscle mass?

    Yes, it is possible. Gaining strength without gaining muscle mass is common in novice lifters and people who are returning from long lay-offs. Older lifters can sometimes improve strength through improvements in lifting technique.

    However, once these avenues have been exhausted, the only way to improve strength is through and increase in mass.

  4. Can I gain muscle mass without getting stronger?

    No. This is why so many bodybuilders, appropriately, train to get stronger. If you get stronger, you will get larger. This doesn't automatically mean, that when comparing to different individuals, the larger person is stronger. It simply means that if you take your existing muscle mass and then increase it, it will necessarily be stronger.

    In response to this question, Fred Hatfield once said "just lift the damn weights!"

What should I eat?

There are some good nutrition and training FAQs located at
Also there is the Training-Nutrition mailing list - to subscribe

  1. to gain weight? [deja]

    There are three macronutrients (food consumed in large amounts to meet energy and other physiological requirements) that you must consume daily: protein, carbohydrate and fat. Bodybuilders often focus on protein (which is the largest constituent of muscle cells after water) because, after all, "you are what you eat." However, the most critical factor for weight gain is total Calorie (one Calorie = one kilocalorie) intake.

    1. How many Calories?

      Those attempting to add muscle to their frames should consume at least 15 to 20 times their body weight (in pounds - kg x 2.2) in Calories per day. 25 times your body weight should be the upper limit in Calories consumed for weight gain diets, but these are usually for steroid-assisted athletes.

    2. How much protein?

      Approximately 15 to 20% of those Calories should come from protein. Bodybuilders are rarely deficient in protein. Common sources of protein include milk, eggs, red meat, chicken, beans, rice, pasta and nuts.

    3. How much carbohydrate?

      Approximately 60 to 65% of those Calories should come from carbohydrates. The healthiest diets usually involve a wide variety of carbohydrate sources starting with vegetables and fruits. Other sources of carbs include rice, pasta, baked potatoes, oats and breads. These are common carbohydrates consumed on weight-gain diets.

    4. How much fat?

      Approximately 20% of those Calories should come from fats, preferably vegetable fats, although some animal (saturated) fats will inevitably be consumed by those who regularly eat meat.

  2. to lose weight?

    1. How many Calories?

      Someone trying to lose body fat should consume between 10 and 15 times their body weight in Calories per day. A common goal is to consume about 250 Calories fewer than you would normally require, and exercise to burn off an extra 250 Calories. At this Calorie deficit of 500 Calories per day, a person will lose about 1 pound of fat per week. A person should never lose more than 2 pounds per week. The faster the weight is lost, the more likely muscle will be lost instead of fat. Other health problems are also associated with drastic weight loss.

      Another, more precise method:

      * A. Estimate your BMR at 11 x bodyweight in pounds
      * B. To find maintenance Calories multiply BMR by:
      o 1.2 - for people confined to bed
      o 1.3 - for sedentary people
      o 1.5-1.75 - for normally active people
      o 2.0 - for extremely active people
      * C. Consume 10% less Calories than maintenance. William Lau

    2. How much protein?

      A dieter should consume about 20% of their Calories as protein. This percentage is slightly higher (but not the overall quantity) than for someone trying to gain weight because of the lower overall Calorie intake. Protein, for dieters, should be obtained from lowfat milk, eggs (or egg substitutes), chicken, lean red meat, beans, rice, pasta and nuts.

      For weight trainers 1.0 - 1.5g per lb of lean body weight is generally accepted as more than sufficient, although steroid using athletes should approach the upper end of that range. Some bodybuilders get up to 50% of Calories from protein during cutting cycles since protein is least likely to turn to fat & tends to reduce appetite.

    3. How much carbohydrate?

      A dieter should consume about 60% of their Calories from carbohydrates. The best carbohydrate sources are fruits and vegetables. Rice, pasta, oats and potatoes are commonly consumed foods while dieting. Breads should be avoided by dieters because they are easily overconsumed (high density of Calories), can lead to carbohydrate cravings and often cause a very large insulin response.

      On the other hand

      ::contents © Elliott Oti 2002-2004 where applicable